Vol.-12, No.-1

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by\\r\\nstriatal dopaminergic loss with no cure available at present. Traditional drug therapy has consisted\\r\\nof levodopa (usually in combination with carbidopa). This drug has the disadvantage of significant\\r\\nmotor fluctuations in the long term in the form of “on-off, “delayed on” or “no on” phenomena. These\\r\\ncan be effectively managed by adding various other agents including MAO-B inhibitors (e.g. selegiline)\\r\\nand COMT inhibitors (e.g. tolcapone). Dopamine agonists have also been used as initial therapy\\r\\nwith good results. Accurate diagnosis and individualized assessment of the risks and benefits of\\r\\navailable antiparkinsonian medications should guide initiation of treatment for patients with early\\r\\nPD. In advanced cases various surgical techniques can serve as helpful adjuncts for the relief of\\r\\nsymptoms in PD. The latest modes of medical and surgical therapy for PD are reviewed.\\r\\n